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American Combat Planes of the 20th Century is an incredible reference for anyone who is interested in any American Combat Plane History.   There are 758 pages and 1700 b/w photos in this substantial labor of love by Ray Wagner, who has been passionately researching and writing about aircraft for over 50 years.   Whether you are already familiar with his past works, or just discovering this accomplished author for the first time... This is the book that you've been waiting for!

If you'd like to see the book's   Table of Contents ... Click here.   You can also browse the entire   Index Section   to get an idea of the extensive amount of information that is covered within this book.

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A- 1 Eaton     A- 4 Skyhawk     A- 6 & A- 7     Air Weapons     AV- 8 to A- 10     A- 20 Havoc     A- 22 Martin Maryland     A- 23 Martin Baltimore     A- 24 Douglas     A- 26 Douglas Invader     Attack Planes     B- 2A, F-111, F-117 Stealth    B- 17 Flying Fortress     B- 24 Liberator     B- 25 North American     B- 26 Marauder     B- 29 Superfortress     B- 32 Dominator     B- 35 Flying Wing     B- 36     B- 47 Stratojet     B- 50 Boeing     B- 52 Stratofortress     B- 57 Canberra     B- 58 Hustler     Biplanes     Biplanes, Army Pursuits     Bombers, B- 70 to Stealth     Bombers, First Big     Curtiss Falcon     CO- 1     DH- 4 De Havilland     F3D- Douglas Skyknight    F3H- McDonnell Demon    F4D- 1 Skyray    F4F Grumman Wildcats    F- 4U Corsair    F6F Grumman    F7F Grumman    F7U Vought    F9F G. Cougar    F9F G. Panther    F- 16 Fighting Falcon    F- 84     F- 86 Sabre    F- 89 to F-94    F- 100 to F-108    First Fighters    Flying Boats    GAX    Iraq to Afghanistan    Martin Bombers    Missile Era Fighters    Navy Fighers    Navy Flying Boats    O- 2 Douglas     P- 35 Seversky     P- 36 to 42 Curtiss     P- 38 Lightning    P- 39 Airacobra    P- 40 Line    P- 47 Thunderbolt    P- 51 Mustang Fighter    P- 61 Black Widow    P- 63 Kingcobra    P- 79 to P-81    P- 82 Twin Mustang    SB2C Helldiver    TBF-TBM Avenger    Thomas-Morse    Torpedo Planes    V- 11 Vultee    XB -28    XP -48 / 77   

Martin Bombers

BT-32, Bellanca 77-140, 139-WR


Page 3 CURTISS-WRIGHT CONDOR BT-32 seaplane 
for Colombia

The Curtiss-Wright BT-32 was a bomber version of the Condor transport armed with five .30-caliber guns and up to 3,940 pounds of bombs. The last large biplane built in the U.S., the BT-32 had two R-1820-F2 Cyclones, retractable wheels, and a fabric-covered steel tube structure. The pilots sat in the nose of the cabin with a dome for a top gunner before the wings and behind them were guns in another top dome, at side windows, and a bottom hatch for the rear gunner. The bomb bay could hold two 1,130, three 600, or six 300-pound bombs, and up to fourteen 120-pound bombs could be added on racks under the wings BELLANCA 77-140

Completed on February 9, 1934, the demonstration aircraft went to China and was sold to Chiang Kai-shek. Three Condors delivered in June 1934 with twin floats became the first bombers sold to Colombia. Four more, built for Bolivia before a trade embargo, became transports in Peru. Most of the 45 Condors built in St. Louis were passenger or cargo planes that were soon displaced by faster Douglas monoplanes.


Colombia was the only buyer of the Bellanca 77-140, a bulky fabric-covered, high-wing monoplane with R-1820-F3 Cyclones, externally-braced, squared-off wings, and fixed landing gear at the intersection of stub wings and struts. Armament included 2,500 pounds of bombs and five .30-caliber guns located in the nose pit, and at top, bottom, and side openings in the cabin. Unlike the Martin, there was room inside the cabin for cargo or a dozen people along with the four-man crew. The first example had wheels and a nose gunner's turret in September 1934. Three with twin floats and open gunner's pit flew to Colombia by March 1935, fire destroyed another.

Glenn L. Martin was finally allowed to offer an export version of the B-10 and the first was a single Model 139WR (X16706) sold to Russia in November 1935 for $116,718. Finished in August 1936 and shipped in September, it had GR-1820-F53 Cyclones of 730 hp at 9,600 feet and Hamilton propellers. BELLANCA 77-140 seaplane for Colombia

Ramon Franco, a famous Spanish pilot, had favorably recommended the Martin after visiting America, and in January 1936 his government was negotiating a contract for 50 bombers, the first eight to be completed by Martin and the rest in Spain. Approval of this deal in Spain was delayed by the Popular Front's election victory, and the revolt led by Franco's brother, Francisco, began in July. On August 11, 1936, the U.S. State Department blocked the sale, so the Spanish Republicans had to match the rebel's German and Italian aircraft with those from the Soviet Union. Tupolev SB bombers used in the Spanish Civil War were often incorrectly described as Martins, although they are quite different aircraft. MARTIN 139-WR for Russia

Martin was willing to forget the Spanish order because others were arriving, beginning with 13 ordered by the Netherlands on February 27, 1936. Orders from China and Siam followed that summer.

A demonstrator (NR 15563) with R-1820-G2 Cyclones (850 hp at 5,800 feet) was first flown August 28, 1936, by E.D. Shannon, who flew this aircraft to Argentina in September to compete against the Junkers Ju 86 and Savoia SM-79B. The Martin won, Argentina buying 13 bombers for the Navy on December 24, 1936.


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