American Combat Planes of the 20th Century is an incredible reference for anyone who is interested in any American Combat Plane History.   There are 758 pages and 1700 b/w photos in this substantial labor of love by Ray Wagner, who has been passionately researching and writing about aircraft for over 50 years.   Whether you are already familiar with his past works, or just discovering this accomplished author for the first time... This is the book that you've been waiting for!

If you'd like to see the book's   Table of Contents ... Click here.   You can also browse the entire   Index Section   to get an idea of the extensive amount of information that is covered within this book.

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A- 1 Eaton     A- 4 Skyhawk     A- 6 & A- 7     Air Weapons     AV- 8 to A- 10     A- 20 Havoc     A- 22 Martin Maryland     A- 23 Martin Baltimore     A- 24 Douglas     A- 26 Douglas Invader     Attack Planes     B- 2A, F-111, F-117 Stealth    B- 17 Flying Fortress     B- 24 Liberator     B- 25 North American     B- 26 Marauder     B- 29 Superfortress     B- 32 Dominator     B- 35 Flying Wing     B- 36     B- 47 Stratojet     B- 50 Boeing     B- 52 Stratofortress     B- 57 Canberra     B- 58 Hustler     Biplanes     Biplanes, Army Pursuits     Bombers, B- 70 to Stealth     Bombers, First Big     Curtiss Falcon     CO- 1     DH- 4 De Havilland     F3D- Douglas Skyknight    F3H- McDonnell Demon    F4D- 1 Skyray    F4F Grumman Wildcats    F- 4U Corsair    F6F Grumman    F7F Grumman    F7U Vought    F9F G. Cougar    F9F G. Panther    F- 16 Fighting Falcon    F- 84     F- 86 Sabre    F- 89 to F-94    F- 100 to F-108    First Fighters    Flying Boats    GAX    Iraq to Afghanistan    Martin Bombers    Missile Era Fighters    Navy Fighers    Navy Flying Boats    O- 2 Douglas     P- 35 Seversky     P- 36 to 42 Curtiss     P- 38 Lightning    P- 39 Airacobra    P- 40 Line    P- 47 Thunderbolt    P- 51 Mustang Fighter    P- 61 Black Widow    P- 63 Kingcobra    P- 79 to P-81    P- 82 Twin Mustang    SB2C Helldiver    TBF-TBM Avenger    Thomas-Morse    Torpedo Planes    V- 11 Vultee    XB -28    XP -48 / 77   

Army Pursuits the Biplane Period, 1920-1932

Boeing XPW-8, XPW-9, Pw-9, PW-9C, & TM-24, 24

Page 6

Boeing XPW-9 CURTISS XPW-8 Additional weight such as wheel brakes, reduced performance below that of earlier models and required a balanced rudder, but still the Boeing fighters were usually considered a bit more maneuverable than the Curtiss types. Total PW-9 production, after the three prototypes, was 111, most of them serving with the overseas squadrons, and Boeing sold the similar FB series to the Navy.

Curtiss responded to Boeing’s challenge by rebuilding the third XPW-8 prototype by August 1924 as the XPW-8A with shorter single-bay wings like those of the PW-9. At first the radiator was put in the XPW-8A wing’s center section, but then a tunnel radiator under the engine, again like the Boeing’s, was fitted for competitive flight tests in October. Top speed was greatly improved, but the Boeing’s maneuverability advantage remained.

In December 1924, the same prototype was ordered converted to the XPW-8B with new tapered wings. Designed by George Page, Jr., the new Clark Y airfoil wings and tail became standard on future Curtiss Hawks from the P-l to P-23. The P-ls ordered into production parallel with the Boeing PW-9 in March 1925 were nearly identical to the XPW-8B prototype. Boeing XPW-9	BOEING PW-9

While Boeing and Curtiss had profitable results from their fighter initiatives, the Thomas-Morse company at Ithaca, New York, would lose money on its efforts. All-metal construction was boldly tried on the TM-23 single-seat biplane with the same Curtiss D-12, a short corrugated aluminum fuselage, and small wings joined by “I” struts. But many difficulties interrupted company tests in 1924.

The same construction was used by the Thomas-Morse TM-24 two-seat fighter tested at McCook Field in February 1925 with a 440-hp Curtiss D-12 cooled by radiators in the wing roots. This biplane’s upper wing was smaller than the lower wing, and was supported by an ugly arrangement of “V” and “N” struts.

Since the first version of the single-seat TM-23 was unsuccessful, it was rebuilt with a new strut system and the radiator under the fuselage, but official performance tests in March 1926, brought complaints that the TM-23 flew badly and had too high a landing speed. No Army contract or designation was given either effort, so the company lost over $77,000 on the TM-23 and $46,000 on the TM-24, showing how risky expensive technical innovation was for a small company competing against large ones. The day of the all-metal fighter waited for better aluminum technology. BOEING PW-9C

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